Nepali: A Beginner's Primer Conversation and Grammar

पाठ १० (Lesson 10) - GRAMMAR NOTES

1) जान्नु‍ 'to know, be able to do'. To distinguish it from जानु 'to go', you will have to add द after the न for the positive form in order to conjugate the verb in the present tense.


उदाहरणको लागि:

जान्दछु जान्दिन
तपाई / वहाँ जान्‍नुहुन्छ जान्‍नुहुन्‍न
तिमीहरु जान्दछौ जान्दैनौ
हामीहरु जान्दछौँ जान्दैनौँ
उ / त्यो / यो जान्दछ जान्दैन
तिनी जान्दछिन् जान्दिनन्
उनीहरु / यिनीहरु / तिनीहरु जान्दछन् जान्दैनन्


2) कहिलेपनि plus negative verb gives the meaning of 'never'


उदाहरणको लागि :

म कहिलेपनि रक्सी खादिन * I never drink liquor.
तिनी कहिलेपनि रुदिनन् She never cries.
पिटर कहिलेपनि झगडा गर्दैन Peter never quarrels.
हामीले कहिलेपनि गीत गाएनौँ We never sang a song.

* One can never say म कहिलेपनि रक्सी खान्छु this is incorrect grammar

3) केहिपनि plus a negative verb gives the meaning 'nothing'


उदाहरणको लागि:

म केहिपनि खादिन I eat nothing, I don't eat anything.
यो केहिपनि होईन This is nothing.
यहाँ केहिपनि छैन There is nothing here.

4) Present and future conditional clause (यदि ......भने)


Unlike English, in Nepali we usually use the simple past tense in the first clause and the present or future tense in the second clause in the general form of present and future conditional clauses. The first clause begins with यदि and ends with भने. However, you can drop यदि from the sentence but not the ने.

उदाहरणको लागि:

यदि subject simple past tense भने present or future tense.

(१) यदि म नेपाल गएँ भने म हिमाल चढ्छु ।

[If I Nepal went I Himalaya climb.]

If I go to Nepal, I will climb the Himalayas.

(२) यदि गुरु आउनुभएन भने म घर जान्छु ।

(यदि) गुरु आउनु भएन भने म घर जान्छु ।

If the teacher doesn't come, I will go home.

(३) यदि आमाले पैसा दिनुभयो भने म सिनेमा हेर्न जान्छु ।

If my mother gives me money, I will go to see a movie.

5) Use of ले in Nepali:


In Nepali ले occurs both as a morphological case marker and as an instrumental or agent marker. Examples:

(A) ले is used as a suffix with the subject if the main verb in a sentence is transitive and in the past tense. Intransitive verbs don't take the suffix.

तपाई आउनुभयो

(You came)

is correct.
तपाईले आउनुभयो is not correct.
तपाई खानुभयो

(You ate)

is not correct.
तपाईले खानुभयो is correct

(B) Despite the fact that the verb is transitive, ले is not normally used as a case marker in the present tense. e.g. तपाईले खानुहुन्छ is not correct. The correct form is तपाई खानुहुन्छ. However, Sometimes ले even occurs in the present tense, emphasizing the subject as an instrumental or agent.

Examples:

(i) आमाले खाना पकाउनुहुन्छ

Mother (agent/instrumental) cooks food (Mother is the one who cooks food).

(ii) जोनले काम गर्छ

John works (John is the one who does work).

(iii) In some situations, ले is also used to avoid ambiguity in the meaning of a sentence, for example:

त्यो सर्प खान्छ

That snake eat (3rd. person singular) (That eats snake).

In this situation, this sentence could have two meanings:

1) That snake eats (the food);

2) That one eats the snake, in which 'that' could mean anybody or any animate thing.

By adding the suffix ले it has only one meaning:

त्यस्ले सर्प खान्छ

That one (person/thing) eats (a/the) snake.

or :

त्यो सर्पले खान्छ

That snake eats (food) / That particular snake eats (food).

 

(C) ले can also be used as the instrumental suffix, where it gives meaning of 'with, of, by', for example:

(A) म हातले खाना खान्छु I eat food with (my) hand.

(B) उ हैजाले मर्यो He died of/by cholera.

(D) ले is also used in obligatory structure (should, have to, must) with the subject if the verb is transitive in both the present and past tenses:

 

उदाहरणको लागि:

a)

सीताले गीत गाउनु पर्छ Sita should/has to sing a song.
सीताले गित गाउनु हुदैन Sita should not sing a song.

b)

रामले किताब किन्‍नु पर्छ Ram has to/needs to/should buy a book.
रामले किताब किन्‍नु पर्दैन Ram does need to buy a book.

c)

तपाई भोली आउनु पर्छ You should/have to/need to come tomorrow.
तपाई भोली आउनु पर्दैन You don't need to/have to come tomorrow.
तपाई भोली आउनु हुदैन You should not come tomorrow.

d)

तपाई भोली आउनै पर्छ You must come tomorrow.
तपाई भोली आउनै हुदैन You must not come tomorrow.

 

पर्छ present or future पर्‍यो past tense of all the forms

पर्दैन परेन are the past of 'need to' and 'have to' forms.

The past negative form of 'should' and 'must' is हुदैनथियो

Objectives

By the end of Lesson 10, you should be able to:

  • count up to 80
  • differentiate between like and feel like
  • know the use of the case marker ले
  • use present and future conditional clauses
  • use obligatory structures (have to, need to, should and must)

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