पाठ १० (Lesson 10) - GRAMMAR NOTES
|1) जान्नु 'to know, be able to do'. To distinguish it from जानु 'to go', you will have to add द after the न for the positive form in order to conjugate the verb in the present tense.|
|2) कहिलेपनि plus negative verb gives the meaning of 'never'|
* One can never say म कहिलेपनि रक्सी खान्छु this is incorrect grammar
|3) केहिपनि plus a negative verb gives the meaning 'nothing'|
|4) Present and future conditional clause (यदि ......भने)|
यदि subject simple past tense भने present or future tense.
(१) यदि म नेपाल गएँ भने म हिमाल चढ्छु ।
[If I Nepal went I Himalaya climb.]
If I go to Nepal, I will climb the Himalayas.
(२) यदि गुरु आउनुभएन भने म घर जान्छु ।
(यदि) गुरु आउनु भएन भने म घर जान्छु ।
If the teacher doesn't come, I will go home.
(३) यदि आमाले पैसा दिनुभयो भने म सिनेमा हेर्न जान्छु ।
If my mother gives me money, I will go to see a movie.
|5) Use of ले in Nepali:|
(A) ले is used as a suffix with the subject if the main verb in a sentence is transitive and in the past tense. Intransitive verbs don't take the suffix.
(B) Despite the fact that the verb is transitive, ले is not normally used as a case marker in the present tense. e.g. तपाईले खानुहुन्छ is not correct. The correct form is तपाई खानुहुन्छ. However, Sometimes ले even occurs in the present tense, emphasizing the subject as an instrumental or agent.
(i) आमाले खाना पकाउनुहुन्छ
Mother (agent/instrumental) cooks food (Mother is the one who cooks food).
(ii) जोनले काम गर्छ
John works (John is the one who does work).
(iii) In some situations, ले is also used to avoid ambiguity in the meaning of a sentence, for example:
त्यो सर्प खान्छ
That snake eat (3rd. person singular) (That eats snake).
In this situation, this sentence could have two meanings:
1) That snake eats (the food);
2) That one eats the snake, in which 'that' could mean anybody or any animate thing.
By adding the suffix ले it has only one meaning:
त्यस्ले सर्प खान्छ
That one (person/thing) eats (a/the) snake.
त्यो सर्पले खान्छ
That snake eats (food) / That particular snake eats (food).
(C) ले can also be used as the instrumental suffix, where it gives meaning of 'with, of, by', for example:
(D) ले is also used in obligatory structure (should, have to, must) with the subject if the verb is transitive in both the present and past tenses:
पर्छ present or future पर्यो past tense of all the forms
पर्दैन परेन are the past of 'need to' and 'have to' forms.
The past negative form of 'should' and 'must' is हुदैनथियो
By the end of Lesson 10, you should be able to:
Glossary - Enter or paste text in English or Nepali