Nepali: A Beginner's Primer Conversation and Grammar
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Nepali Consonants

consonant + h = aspirated consonant

the half consonant forms are given in parentheses

क (क्‍) ख (ख्‍) ग (ग्‍) घ (घ्‍) ङ (ङ्‍)
ka kha ga gha nga
च (च्‍) छ (छ्‍) ज (ज्‍) झ (झ्‍) ञ (ञ्‍)
cha chha ja jha nya
ट (ट्‍) ठ (ठ्‍) ड (ड्‍) ढ (ढ्‍) ण (ण्‍)
Ta Tha Da Dha Na
त (त्‍) थ (थ्‍) द (द्‍) ध (ध्‍) न (न्‍)
ta tha da dha na
प (प्‍) फ (फ्‍) ब (ब्‍) भ (भ्‍) म (म्‍)
pa pha ba bha ma
य (य्‍) र (र्‍‍) ल (ल्‍) व़ (व़्‍)  
ya ra la wa/va  
श (श्‍) ष (ष्‍) स (स्‍)    
sha sha sa    
ह (ह्‍) क्ष (क्ष्‍) त्र (त्र्) ज्ञ (ज्ञ्‍)  
ha kshya tra gya  

 

Devanagari Romanized Linguistic Pronunciation
Vowels
 
अ ( ) a a low back
आ (ा) aa aa low back
इ (ि) i ii front high
ई (ी) ii ii front high
उ (ु) u u back high
ऊ (ू) uu uu back high
ए (े) e e mid front
ऐ (ै) ai ai diphthong (a+i)
ओ (ो) o o mid back
औ (ौ) au au/aw diphthong (a+u / a+w)
अं/अँ (ं/ँ) a a low back (nasal)
अ: (:) a a low back (lengthened)
 
Consonants
क (क्‍) ka k unaspirated voiceless velar stop
ख (ख्‍) kha kh aspirated voiceless velar stop
ग (ग्‍) ga g unaspirated voiced velar stop
घ (घ्‍) gha gh aspirated voiced velar stop
ङ (ङ्‍) nga ng velar nasal
ञ (ञ्‍) nya ny palatal nasal
ट (ट्‍) Ta T anaspirated voiceless retroflex stop
ठ (ठ्‍) Tha Th aspirated voiceless retroflex stop
ड (ड्‍) Da D anaspirated voiced retroflex stop
ढ (ढ्‍) Dha Dh aspirated voiced retroflex stop
ण (ण्‍) Na r retroflex nasal
त (त्‍) ta t anaspirated voiceless dental stop
थ (थ्‍) tha th aspirated voiceless dental stop
द (द्‍) da d anaspirated voiced dental stop
ध (ध्‍) dha dh aspirated voiced dental stop
न (न्‍) na n dental nasal
प (प्‍) pa p anaspirated voiceless bilabial stop
फ (फ्‍) pha ph aspirated voiceless bilabial stop
ब (ब्‍) ba b anaspirated voiced bilabial stop
भ (भ्‍) bha bh aspirated voiced bilabial stop
म (म्‍) ma m bilabial nasal
य (य्‍) ya y palatal glide
र (र्‍) ra r alveolar liquid
ल (ल्‍) la l alveolar liquid
व़ (व़्‍) wa/va w/a velar glide
श (श्‍) sha sh palatal fricative
ष (ष्‍) sha sh palatal retroflex
स (स्‍) sa s dental fricative
ह (ह्‍) ha h glottal fricative
 
Affricates
च (च्‍) cha c unaspirated voiceless palatal stop
छ (छ्‍) chha ch aspirated voiceless palatal stop
ज (ज्‍) ja j unaspirated voiced palatal stop
झ (झ्‍) jha jh aspirated voiced palatal stop
 
Complex segments
क्ष (क्ष्‍) kshya kshy complex segment (k+s+y)
त्र (त्र्‌) tra tr complex segment (t+r)
ज्ञ (ज्ञ्‍) gya gy complex segment (g+y)

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